Metrological Standard Machines from GTM
– Masterful Unique Specimens

In addition to our best-in-class force and torque transfer standards, which have been in use for many years for comparison between national metrology institutes (NMI) or calibration labs, for traceability to national institutes or as reference transducers in testing facilities, we also offer custom tailored metrological measurement systems for forces, torques and multi-component measurements. These high-precision measurement systems have been used very successfully around the world, in national metrology institutes, calibration labs and by manufacturers of strain gauge transducers for forces and torques.

Over the years, GTM standard machines have become standard in this field on every continent in the world. The company is also commonly mentioned in the context of high-end metrological systems – a synonym for high-precision and absolutely reliable metrological traceability with GTM measurement systems. GTM holds a unique position in the metrological market environment, because GTM can deliver high-end turnkey standard machines worldwide, with proven absolute reliability and success. From the first contact to the design process and detailed specifications, all the way to production and delivery – on the basis of our robust supply chain – the entire standard machine is one-hundred percent custom tailored to your highly specific requirements. Our joint goal: always the best overall metrological solution, often as a joint pioneering development, hand in hand with customers and National Metrological Institutes – every project has its own success story. All standard machines, of course, use only high-precision GTM products, from transfer standards to mechanical accessories and strain gauge measuring amplifiers. In general, GTM metrological systems can be designed as follows, on the basis of your specifications and the particular version:

Force Standard Machines

Dead weight standard machines

The dead weight standard machines serve the most accurate representation of the force scale and meet the highest requirements. In their material selection, alignment, drive concept and other
important design criteria, they are uncompromisingly optimized for precision.

Key Facts

  • Type: Dead-weight
  • Force range: 0,1 – 500 kN
  • Expanded uncertainty: 0.001 % to 0.01 %

Jockey-weight standard machines

Jockey-weight standard machines are not only a cost-effective alternative to dead weight measuring standard machines. The design principle offers the only known method that allows
mass and length based alternating loads for remanence determination of force transducers.

Key Facts

  • Type: jockey-weight
  • Force range: 0,1 – 500 kN
  • Expanded uncertainty: 0.01 % to 0.05 %

Lever transmission

The lever transmission of the dead loads offers an optimal cost-effective alternative for larger forces. Due to the continuous further development of the GTM lever bearing with strain-controlled joints, measurement uncertainties are now achieved that were previously only reserved for dead load standard machines.

Key Facts

  • Type: lever-amplification
  • Kraftbereich: 1 – 2000 kN
  • Expanded uncertainty: < 0,002 % to 0,01 %


Thanks to the double reference transducer invented by GTM, hydraulic standard machines from GTM offer significant advantages in accuracy when compared to other hydraulic systems, even at extended measuring ranges. In addition, the sealed cylinder system allows for virtually silent, energy-saving operation.

Key Facts

  • Type: Hydraulic
  • Kraftbereich: 500 – 10.000 kN
  • Expanded uncertainty: 0,02 % to 0,05 %

Torque Standard Machines

Torque dead weight system

The lever bearing is one of the most important elements in torque dead weight systems. Taking into account the nominal loads and other requirements, we install either proven GTM joints or precision air bearings in order to offer the best possible solution. Tolerances are not welcome in precision equipment.

Key Facts

  • Type: Dead-weight
  • Torque range: 0,1 – 20 kN·m
  • Expanded uncertainty: 0,002 % to 0,01 %


The ideal standard machine for research, development and production. The combination of the jockey weight principle and strain-controlled lever bearings ensures high precision, swift load reversal and long-term stability.

Key Facts

  • Type: jockey-weight
  • Torque range: 1 – 5.000 N·m
  • Expanded uncertainty: 0.01 % to 0.05 %

Reference with lever

When used together with multi-axis transducers for force introduction on the lever, precision force transducers constructed according to the bending ring principle are at the core components of this standard machine for large torques. When used with floating lever bearings (invented by GTM), a unique suppression of interference variables is achieved.

Key Facts

  • Type: Reference with lever
  • Torque range: 10.000 - 1.000.000 N·m
  • Expanded uncertainty: 0.05 % to 0.1 %

Multi-axis Standard Machines


For multi-axis calibration, we have developed reference transducer systems and procedures in order to trace the forces and torques on multi-component applications back force standard machines on the dead weight units. These standard machines are suitable for research, development and calibration purposes.

Key Facts

  • Type: Reference
  • Force and moment ranges: depending on requirement
  • Expanded uncertainty: 0,1 % to 0,5 %

Multi-axis / component reference standard 500 kN MK-BNME

Fully automated standard machine with electromechanical hexapod drives and reference measuring platform. Calibrations of multi-axis transducers with full knowledge of the force vector through our traceable, resolved systems with lowest measurement uncertainty.

Key Facts

  • Measured quantity: Multicomponent force and moment, tension and compression forces, right and left moments
  • Operating principle: Reference transducer in resolved systems, with highly decoupled, elastic force transmission
  • Fully automated measurement process
  • Simultaneous loading of several components
  • Large installation space for calibration under conditions close to the application
  • Measuring range:

Measuring range

Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz W*
kN kN kN kN·m kN·m kN·m %
2 – 200 2 – 200 4 – 500 2 – 50 2 – 50 2 – 50 From 0.1

* Expanded relative uncertainty

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GTM Measuring Transducers are used almost Universally - whether for Materials and Component Testing or for Industrial Quality and Process Control.


High-Precision, flexibly configurable or "Engineered-To Order" Transducers and Mechanical Systems for Forces and Torques, High-Precision strain-gauge Amplifiers, as well as Turnkey Standard Machines


You can always rely on us! We are your competent, trustworthy and first point of contact when it comes to manufacturer-independent calibration of forces, moments and voltage ratios, traceability of your transducers and further development of metrological calibration procedures.